Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness: A quantitative synthesis of effect size. International Journal of Advertising
The reading discusses the various points of celebrity endorsements, the good and negative things that it brings to endorsed products. Companies get celebrities to add value to their company, brand or product.
Meaning transfer model
Consumers purchase the product hoping to claim some of the transferred meanings for their lives. For example, people buy endorsed clothes and hope to be able to look “cool” “pretty” like the celebrity.
Research has also shown that these points affect endorsements:
1. Celebrity performance
- This refers to the level of achievement a celebrity attains.
- It can refer to their athletic performance, acting/musical success.
- If a celebrity fails to perform acceptably, the effectiveness of the endorsement tends to decline
2. Negative celebrity information
- Consumers tend to link the brand to celebrity and vice versa, after repeated endorsements.
- Negative information on the celebrity may negatively impact the endorsed brand.
- However I think that for F&B, celebrity news will not really affect them, especially big brands. Consumers already like the food, therefore they will not actually think that the food is bad if the endorser “turned bad”. On the other hand, if food has bad image such as chemical or poisonous details, celebrity will be affected.
3. Celebrity credibility
Consumers generally view the celebrities as credible sources of information about the product/company they endorse.
a. Source credibility model
- Looks at the factors that affect the perceived credibility of the endorser.
- The effectiveness of the message depends on the expertise and trustworthiness of the endorser
b. Source attractiveness model
- Looks at the attractiveness of the endorser which includes – similarity, familiarity and likability
- When consumers see the endorser as “similar” to them, familiar with and like the celebrity, they will tend to view the endorser as attractive.
4. Celebrity expertise
- Consumers look to see if the endorser has the skills and qualifications to endorse the product.
- For example, sports brands hire athletes to endorse their products. Or, chefs endorse for cookery products. And not singers endorsing for cookery products.
- Consumers will be able to react better to the endorser’s recommendation compared to those endorsers with low expertise.
- The degree of confidence that consumers have on the endorser.
i. Favorable disposition
iii. Psychological safety
iv. Perceived supportive climate
- Research has shown that opinionated message from a highly trustworthy endorser produces an effective attitude change among consumers.
5. Celebrity attractiveness
- Physical attractiveness, Personality, Athletic ability
- Attractive endorsers have more positive impact on the products than less attractive endorsers.
6. Celebrity fit
- Harmony of the match between endorser and product.
This raises the question on celebrities who portray “bad” image and their effectiveness. The image that they portray may appeal or alienate consumers. I feel that different literature studies will be needed to study this part of endorsements.
What other points of endorsements can you point out?
Amos, C., Holmes, G. & Strutton, D. (2008). Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness: A quantitative synthesis of effect size. International Journal of Advertising, 27, 209-‐234.