Why we buy Proactiv when Katy Perry tells us to…
The article ‘Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness: A quantitative synthesis of effect size’ explores and reviews the effectiveness of celebrity endorsements.
the meaning transfer model:
the ‘meaning transfer model’ is an important model to understand when looking at celebrity endorsements. this model is based around the idea that the public develop a particular view and make particular meanings from celebrities. This meaning is then transferred to the product that the celebrity endorses. This model can be reviewed further in the study ‘towards a practitioner-based model of selecting celebrity endorsers’ by Erdogan, B. Zafer and Baker, Michael J.
This meaning that we take from celebrities is important as research has shown a correlation between endorser and product fit (a matching of the dominant traits seen in the celebrity and the product/brand).
research in this area has highlighted key predictors (certain traits) in celebrity endorsers that lead to certain endorsement feedback. These predictors include:
- Celebrity performance
- Negative celebrity information
- Celebrity credibility
- Celebrity expertise
- Celebrity trustworthiness
- celebrity attractiveness
- Celebrity familiarity and likeability (sometimes referred to as the same as attractiveness)
- Celebrity/product fit
In this study meta-analysis was used to provide a comprehensive and quantitative review of current literature in this area.
endorsement effectiveness was measured through the categories: purchase intention, brand attitude, attitude towards advertisement, believability, recall and recognition. Also considered were methodological dimensions, these were source manipulation, celebrity/product fit, experimental effect, study setting, sample type, and origin.
The study concluded that the four main key predictors of positive endorsement effectiveness were: negative celebrity information, celebrity trustworthiness, celebrity expertise and celebrity attractiveness.
So, this is why we buy Proactiv because Katy Perry tells us to:
- She is positively viewed by us; we have no reason to view her negatively (except maybe her ridiculously short marriage to Russel Brand)
- She is perceived as trustworthy
- Her expertise (she has excellent skin… maybe if i use Proactiv I’ll look like her!)
- Attractiveness, both physically and also personality-wise
Our susceptibility to celebrity endorsements of companies and products is hugely relevant. It should really make us question ourselves and make us wonder ‘why am I buying this product? Is it really because Katy Perry said I should?
Amos, C., Holmes, G. & Strutton, D. 2008. Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness: A quantitative synthesis of effect size. International Journal of Advertising, 27, 209-234.